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Conte69, PALS, and Other Atlases

Surface-based atlases of human, macaque, rat, and mouse cerebral and cerebellar cortex, derived from structural MRI volumes and processed using Caret, provide many visualization formats, many types of associated experimental data, and many options for analyzing and comparing your own experimental data in relation to reference atlas data.


The Conte69 atlas was generated from 69 healthy adults registered to the “164k_fs_LR” surface mesh (Glasser & Van Essen, 2011; Van Essen et al., 2011b) See Details

The PALS-B12 (Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based) atlas is derived from twelve normal, young adults. PALS-B12 (‘PALS’, for short) contains extensive surface and volumetric data and has been registered to many distinct stereotaxic spaces (e.g., SPM2, FLIRT, AFNI) to facilitate cross-study comparisons.

To learn more about PALS:

  • Download or view in WebCaret the PALS dataset in SumsDB.
  • Download "The Basics" Tutorial (see [Caret:Documentation | Documentation]) for an extensive overview.
  • Download the “Quick Start” Tutorial (see [Caret:Documentation | Documentation]) for a brief overview.
  • Get the NeuroImage article describing PALS (Van Essen, 2005).
  • Get the Neuron article describing PALS and other human brain atlases (Van Essen & Dierker, 2007).

The PC-CC (PALS Cerebral, Colin Cerebellar) atlas is a hybrid that includes the PALS-B12 population-average atlas for cerebral cortex plus a cerebellar atlas from an individual subject (‘Colin’), with both sets of surfaces in a ‘standard’mesh (73,730 nodes) to enable concurrent visualization. (Technical limitations make a population-average atlas of the cerebellum impractical at present.)

  • Download the PC-CC atlas [Link coming soon]


The macaque ‘F99’ atlas is based on an individual subject scanned at high resolution. Partitioning schemes from 15 published studies have been mapped to the atlas, along with connectivity and neuroimaging data (Van Essen et al., 2011a).

The macaque ‘F6’ atlas is a population-average atlas (n = 6) generated by volume averaging and used as a target for resting-state functional connectivity studies. The F6 and F99 atlas surfaces have been registered to one another by surface-based registration.

  • Download or view in WebCaret the Macaque atlas dataset.
  • Download "The Basics" Tutorial (see [Caret:Documentation | Documentation]), including a chapter on macaque atlases.


The mouse ‘map_015’ atlas and the rat ‘Song_2’ atlases are available as MRI volumes and cortical surfaces, with published architectonic partitioning schemes mapped to each surface.

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